Q: What is biochar, and how can it help reduce my carbon footprint?
— WILLIAM JARVIS, BETHLEHEM
A: Biochar is a naturally occurring, fine-grained, highly porous form of charcoal derived from the process of baking biomass. It has been associated with fertile soils for some 2,000 years.
“Biochar is found in soils around the world as a result of vegetation fires and historic soil management practices,” reports the International Biochar Initiative, a trade group representing the world’s burgeoning biochar industry. “Intensive study of biochar-rich dark earths in the Amazon has led to a wider appreciation of biochar’s unique properties as a soil enhancer.”
Indeed, researchers have been hard at work perfecting their own methods for manufacturing biochar by baking biomass in giant oxygen-free kilns. The resulting biochar can then be used as a soil amendment to help restore tired, compromised farmland and contaminated industrial sites, while taking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. A liquid byproduct of the biochar production process can also be converted into a carbon-neutral “biofuel” that can displace other carbon intensive fuels.
Farmers can layer biochar into their fields, where it becomes part of the soil matrix and helps retain water and essential agricultural nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.
“You can basically think of it as a soil reef upon which abiotic and biotic phenomena happen,” said David Shearer, CEO of Full Circle Biochar, one of a handful of U.S.-based biochar startups working to commercialize the age-old “technology.”